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spodoptera exigua


Order Family Common Name(s) Group Host
lepidoptera noctuidae beet army worm, lesser army worm AG cotton, tomato, celery, lettuce, cabbage and alfalfa

Shown Resistance to Active Ingredient(s)

  1. abamectin (#31)
  2. Bacillus thuringiensis (var. unspecified) (#10)
  3. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca
  4. Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai
  5. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
  6. BHC/cyclodienes - Unspecified In Literature (#3)
  7. bifenthrin (#13)
  8. chlorantraniliprole (#26)
  9. chlorfenapyr (#11)
  10. chlorfluazuron (#9)
  11. chlorpyrifos (#48)
  12. chlorpyrifos + DEM
  13. cyantraniliprole
  14. cyfluthrin (#2)
  15. cyhalothrin-lambda (#2)
  16. cypermethrin (#56)
  17. cypermethrin-beta
  18. DDT (#4)
  19. deltamethrin (#43)
  20. deltamethrin + DEF
  21. deltamethrin + PBO
  22. diflubenzuron
  23. emamectin benzoate (#48)
  24. endosulfan (#19)
  25. fenpropathrin (#14)
  26. fenvalerate (#5)
  27. flubendiamide (#5)
  28. indoxacarb (#44)
  29. lufenuron (#10)
  30. metaflumizone (#4)
  31. methomyl (#18)
  32. methoxyfenozide (#25)
  33. parathion-methyl (#3)
  34. permethrin (#2)
  35. profenofos (#22)
  36. Pyrethroids - Unspecified In Literature (#3)
  37. pyridalyl
  38. quinalphos (#9)
  39. Spinetoram
  40. spinosad (#56)
  41. tebufenozide (#19)
  42. teflubenzuron
  43. thiodicarb

Citation(s) of Resistance

# Citation
1 Luttrell, R.G., L. Wan, and K. Knighten. (1999). Variation in Susceptibility of Noctuid (Lepidoptera) Larvae Attacking Cotton and Soyabean to Purified Endotoxin Proteins and Commercial Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(1) 21-32.
2 Moar, W.J., M. Pusztai-Carey, M.N. Faassen, D. Bosch, R. Frutos, C. Rang, K. Luo, and M.J. Adang. (1995). Development of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC resistance by Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61 2086-2092.
3 Mascarenhas, V.J., J.B. Graves, B.R. Leonard, and E.Burris. (1998). Susceptibility of Field Populations of Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Commercial and Experimental Insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91(4) 827-833.
4 Kerns, D.L., J.C. Palumbo, and T. Tellez. (1998). Resistance of Field Strains of Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Arizona and California to Carbamate Insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91(5) 1038-1043.
5 Brewer, M.J., and J.T. Trumble. (1989). Field Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(6) 1520-1526.
6 Van Laecke, K., G. Smagghe, and D. Degheele. (1995). Detoxifying Enzymes in Greenhouse and Laboratory Strain of Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4) 777-781.
7 Aldosari, S.A., T.F. Watson, S. Sivasupramaniam, and A.A. Osman. (1996). Susceptibility of Field Populations of Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cyfluthrin, Methomyl, and Profenofos, and Selection for Resistance to Cyfluthrin. Journal of Economic Entomology.
8 Brewer, M.J., J.T. Trumble, B. Alvorado-Rodriguez, and W.E. Chaney. (1990). Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Adult and Larval Susceptibility to three insecticides in managed habitats and relationship to laboratory selection for resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(6) 2136-2146.
9 Alava, D., and A. Lagunes-Tejeda. (1976). Resistencia cruzada a varios tipos de insecticidas despues de producir resistencia a parathion metilico en spodoptera exigua. Folia Entomol. Mex., 36 / 77-78 36 / 77-78.
10 Brewer, M.J., and J.T. Trumble. (1994). Beet Armyworm Resistance to Fenvalerate and Methomyl: Resistance Variation and Insecticide Synergism. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 11 291-300.
11 Moulton, J.K., D. Pepper, and T.J. Dennehy. (2000). Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) resistance to spinosad. Pest Manag Sci, 56 842-848.
12 Moulton, J.K., D.A. Pepper, and T.J. Dennehy. (2000). Pro-active Management of Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) Resistance to the IGR's, Tebufenozide and Methoxyfenozide. The University College of Agriculture 2000 Vegetable Report, Index at
13 Moulton J.K., and T.J. Dennehy. (2001). Beet Armyworm Resistance to the Bt Toxin Cry1Ac. University of Arizona College of Agriculture 2001 Vegetable Report.
14 Perez, C.J., P. Alvarado, C. Narvaez, F. Miranda, L. Hernandez, H. Vanegas, A. Hruska, and A.M. Shelton. (2000). Assessment of Insecticide Resistance in Five Insect Pests Attacking Field and Vegetable Crops in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomolgy, 93(6) 1779-1787.
15 Wang, W., Mo, J., Cheng, J., Zhuang, P., Tang, Z. (2006). Selection and characterization of spinosad resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemisty and Physiology, 84 180-187.
16 Graves, J. B. (1974). Communication to FAO.
17 Anon. (1964). U.S.. Dept. Agric. In: Brown 1971.
18 Brewer, M. J., J. T. Trumble, B. Alvarado-Rodriguez and W. E. Chaney. (1990). Beet armyworm (Lep., Noctuidae) adult and larval susceptibility to three insecticides in managed habitats and relationship to labortatory selection of resistance.. J. Econ. Entomol. (in press).
19 Chaufaux, J. and P. Ferron. (1986). Sensibilite differente de denx popultions de Spodoptera exigua Gub.. (Lepid., Noctuidae) aux baculovirus et aux pyrethrinoides de synthese. Agronomie., 6 99-104.
20 (1967). Report of the First Session of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Resistance of Pests to Pesticides.. FAO, Rome 1965.
21 Herve, J.J. (1980). Personal communication.
22 Miner, F.D. (1974). Communication to FAO.
23 Reynolds, H. T. (1960). Establishing levels of insecticide resistance with standardized laboratory detection methods in agricultural arthropod pests.. Misc. Pub. Entomol. Soc. Am., 2 103-11.
24 Yoshida, H. A. and Parrella, M. P. (1987). The beet armyworm in floricultural crops.. Califrornia Agriculture 41:(2)13-15..
25 Osorio, A., Martinez, A. M., Schneider, M. I., Diaz, O., Corrales, J., Aviles, M. C., Smagghe, G., and Pineda, A. (2008). Monitoring of beet armyworm resistance to spinosad and methoxyfenozide in Mexico. Pest Management Science, 64 1001-1007.
26 Hernandez-Martinez, P., Ferre, J., and Escriche, B. (2009). Broad-spectrum cross-resistance in Spodoptera exigua from selection with a marginally toxic Cry protein. Pest Management Science, 65 645-650.
27 Jia, B, Liu, Y., Zhu, Y.C., Liu, X., Gao, C., Shen, J. (2009). Inheritance, fitness cost, and mechanism of resistance to tebufenozide in Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Management Science, 65 996-1002.
28 Mushtaq A, Arif, M. (2010). Resistance of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to endosulfan, organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in Pakistan . crop protection , 29 1428-1433.
29 Ishtiaq M., and Mushtaq A. Saleem. (2011). Generating Susceptible Strain and Resistance Status of Field Populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) Against some Conventional and New Chemistry Insectivides in Pakistan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104 1343-1348.
30 Ishtiaq, M., Mushtaq, A., and Razaq, M. (2012). Monitoring of resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from four districts of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan to four conventional and six new chemistry insecticides. Crop Proctection , 33 13-20.
31 Lai, T., and Jianya, S. (2011). Assessment of Resistance Risk in Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) to Chlorantraniliprole. Pest Management Science, 67 1468-1472.
32 Lai, T., Li, J., and Su, J. (2011). Monitoring of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to chlorantraniliprole in China. Pesticide Biochemestry and Physiology, 101 198-205.
33 Ishtiaq, M., Saleem, M. A., Wright, D.J. (2012). Stability, Cross-resistance and Effect of Synergists, PBO and DEF, on Deltamethrin Resistant Strain of Spodoptera exiqua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 44 1677-1682.
34 Che, W., Shi, T., Wu, Y., and Yang, Y. (2012). Insecticide Resistance Status of Field Populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(4) 1855-1862.
35 Martinez, P., Navarro-Cerrillo, G., Caccia, S., A. de Maagd, R., Moar, W., Ferre, J., Esciche, B., and Herrero, S. (2010). Constitutive Activation of the Midgut Response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-Resistant Spodoptera exigua. PLOS ONE, 5.
36 Su, J., and Sun, X. (2014). High level of metaflumizone resistance and multiple insecticide resistance in field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Guangdong Province, China. Crop Protection, 61 58-63.
37 Gao, M., Li, X., Mu, W., Zhang, P., Zhou, C. (2014). Resistant levels of Spodoptera exigua to eight various insecticides in Shandong, China. Journal of Pesticide Science, 39 7-13.
38 Zaka, S.M., Abbas, N., Shad, S. A., Shah, R., M. (2014). Effect of emamectin benzoate on life history traits and relative fitness of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Phytoparasitica.
39 Gao, M., Mu, W., Wang, W., Zhou, C., and Li, X. (2014). Resistance mechanisms and risk assessment regarding indoxacarb in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Phytoparasitica.
40 Ishtiaq, M., Razaq, M., Saleem, M. A., Anjum, F., Noor ul Ane, M., Raza, A. M., and Wright, D. (2014). Stability, cross-resistance and fitness costs of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a re-selected field population of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Crop Protection, 65 227-231.
41 Tian, X., Sun, X., Su, J. (2014). Biochemical mechanisms for metaflumizone resistance in beet armyworm, Sodoptera exigua. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 113 8-14.
42 Che, W., Huang, J., Guan, F., Wu, Y., and Yang, Y. (2015). Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology , 108 2015-2020.
43 Ahmad, Mushtaq & Farid, Abid & Saeed, Dr. Muhammad. (2018). Resistance to new insecticides and their synergism in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan. Crop Protection, 107 79-86.
44 Hafeez, M., Liu, S., Jan, S., Ali, B., Shahid, M., Fernández-Grandon, G. M., Nawaz, M., Ahmada, A. and Wang, M. (2019). Gossypol-induced fitness gain and increased resistance to deltamethrin in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). Pest Management Science, 75 683-693.
45 Hu, B., Huang, H., Wei, Q., Ren, M., Mburu, D. K., Tian, X. and Su, J. (2019). Transcription factors CncC/Maf and AhR/ARNT coordinately regulate the expression of multiple GSTs conferring resistance to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in Spodoptera exigua. Pest Management Science, 75 2009-2019.
46 Zuo, Y. Y., Ma, H. H., Lu, W, J., Wang, X. L., Wu, S. W., Nauen, R., Wu, Y. D. and Yang, Y. H. (2019). Identification of the ryanodine receptor mutation I4743M and its contribution to diamide insecticide resistance in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Insect Science.
47 Zuo, Y., Xue, Y., Lu, W., Ma, H., Chen, M., Wu, Y., Yang, Y., and Hu, Z. (2020). Functional validation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ⊍6 as a target of spinosyns in Spodoptera exigua utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Pest Management Science.

Location(s) Where Resistance is Reported

# Location

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