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heliothis virescens


Order Family Common Name(s) Group Host
lepidoptera noctuidae tobacco budworm AG chickpea, corn, cotton, tobacco

Shown Resistance to Active Ingredient(s)

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis (var. unspecified) (#5)
  2. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki
  3. BHC/cyclodienes - Unspecified In Literature (#2)
  4. bifenthrin
  5. bromophos
  6. carbaryl (#2)
  7. cyfluthrin (#2)
  8. cyhalothrin
  9. cypermethrin (#19)
  10. DDT (#11)
  11. deltamethrin (#5)
  12. dioxabenzofos
  13. endosulfan
  14. endrin (#4)
  15. esfenvalerate
  16. ethylan
  17. fenvalerate (#4)
  18. indoxacarb (#2)
  19. lindane (#3)
  20. methomyl (#4)
  21. methoxychlor
  22. monocrotophos
  23. Organophosphates - Unspecified In Literature
  24. parathion (#2)
  25. parathion-methyl (#11)
  26. permethrin (#7)
  27. profenofos (#8)
  28. ronnel
  29. spinosad (#4)
  30. sulprofos (#2)
  31. tau-fluvalinate
  32. TDE
  33. thiodicarb (#2)
  34. toxaphene (#6)
  35. tralomethrin

Citation(s) of Resistance

# Citation
1 Stone, T.B., S.R. Sims, and P.G. Marrone. (1989). Selection of tobacco budworm for resistance to a genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens containing the delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 53 228-234.
2 Martin, S.H., J.A. Ottea, B.R. Leonard, J.B. Graves, E.Burris, S. Micinski, and G.E. Church. (1997). Effects of Selected Synergists on insecticide toxicity in Tobacco Budworm )Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Laboratory and Field Studies. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(3) 723-731.
3 Campanhola, C., and F.W. Plapp, Jr. (1989). Toxicity and Synergism of Insecticides against Susceptible and Pyrethroid-Resistant Neonate Larvae and Adults of the Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(6) 1527-1533.
4 Kanga, L.H.B., F.W. Flapp Jr., G.W. Elzen, M.L. Wall, and J.D. Lopez Jr. (1995). Monitoring for Resistance to Organophosphorus, Carbamate, and Cyclodiene Insecticides in Tobacco Budworm Adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(5) 1144-1149.
5 Gould, F., A. Anderson, A. Reynolds, L. Bumgarner, and W. Moar. (1995). Selection and Genetic Analysis of A heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Strain with High Levels of Resistance to Bacillus Thuringiensis toxins. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(6) 1545-1559.
6 Martinez-Carrillo, J.L., L.P. Schouest, Jr., and T.A. Miller. (1991). Responses of Populations of the Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Northwest Mexico to Pyrethroids. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(2) 363-366.
7 Leonard, B.R., J.B. Graves, T.C. Sparks, and A.M. Pavloff. (1988). Variation in resistance of field populations iof tobacco budworm and Bollworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) to selected insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 81 1521-1528.
8 Luttrell, R.G., T.R. Roush, A. Ali, J.S. Mink, M.R. Reid, and G.L. Snodgrass. (1987). Pyrethroid Resistance in Field Populations of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Mississippi in 1986. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80 985-989.
9 Elzen, G.W., B.R. Leonard, J.B. Graves, E.Burris, and S. Micinski. (1992). Resistance to Pyrethroid, Carbamate, and Organophosphate Insecticides in Field Populations of Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in 1990. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6) 2064-2072.
10 Martin, S.H., G.W. Elzen, J.B. Graves, S. Micinski, B.R. Leonard, and E. Burris. (1995). Toxicological responses of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Louisiana, Mississippi, and texas to selected insecticides.. Journal of economic entomology, 88(3) 505-511.
11 Gould, F., A. Martinez-Ramirez, A. Anderson, J. Ferre, F.J. Silva, and W.J. Moar. (1992). Broad-spectrum resistance to bacillus thuringiensis toxins in heliothis virescens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 89 7986-7990.
12 Harold, J A., and J.A. Ottea. (2000). Characterization of Esterases Associated with Profenofos Resistance in the Tobacco Budworm, Heliothis virescens (F). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 45 47-59.
13 Teran-Vargas, A.P., Rodriguez, J.C., Blanco, C.A., Martinez-Carrillo, J.L., Cibrian-Tovar, J., Sanchez-Arroyo, H., Rodriguez-del-Bosque, L.A., Stanley, D. (2005). Bollgard Cotton and Resistance of Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Conventional Insecticides in Southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(6) 2203-2209.
14 Graves, J. B., Clower, D. F., Bagent, J. L. and Bradley, J. R. (1964). Bollworms increasing in resistance to insecticides.. La. Agric., 7 3.
15 Harris, F. A. (1972). Resistance to methyl parathion and toxaphene-DDT in bollworm and tobacco budworm from cotton in Mississippi.. J. Econ. Entomol., 65 1193-94.
16 Brazzel, J. R. (1963). Resistance to DDT in Heliothis virescens.. J. Econ. Entomol., 56 561-74.
17 Brazzel, J. R. (1965). Research for better insect control.. Miss. Farm Res., 28 8.
18 Brown, T. M., Bryson, K. and Payne, G. T. (1982). Pyrethroid susceptibility in methyl-parathion resistant tobacco budworm in South Carolina.. J. Econ. Entomol., 75 301-03.
19 Bujanos 1983. (1983).
20 Campanhola, C. and Plapp, F. W., Jr. (1989). Pyrethroid resistance in the tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Insecticide bioassays and field monitoring.. J. Econ. Entomol., 82 22-28.
21 Canerday, T. D. (1974). Response of bollworm and tobacco budworm in Georgia to methyl parathion... J. Econ. Entomol., 67 299.
22 Crowder, L. A., Tollefson, M. S. and Watson, T. F. (1979). Dosage-mortality studies of synthetic pyrethroids and methyl parathionon the tobacco budworm in Central Arizona.. J. Econ. Entomol., 72 1-3.
23 (1967). Report of the First Session of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Resistance of Pests to Pesticides.. FAO, Rome 1965.
24 Gaines, J. C. and Adkisson, P. L. (1964). Bull.. Entomol. Soc. Am., 10 176.
25 Lingren, P. D. and Bryan, D. E. (1965). Dosage-mortality data on the bollworm, Heliothis zea, and the tobacco budworm, heliothis virescens in Oklahoma.. J. Econ. Entomol., 58 14-18.
26 Martinez-Carrillo, J. L. and Reynolds, H. T. (1983). Dosage-mortality studies with pyrethroids and other insecticides on the tobacco budworm form the Imperial Valley, California.. J. Econ. Entomol., 76 983-86.
27 Miner, F.D. (1974). Communication to FAO.
28 Pate, T. L. and Brazzel, J. R. (1964). Resistance status of bollworm and tobacco budworms in Mississippi in 1963.. Mississippi Agric. Exp. Sta. Inf. Sheet 848, 2 pp..
29 Pate, T.L. and Brazzel, J.R. (1965). In: FAO 1967.
30 Plapp, F. W., Jr. (1971). Insecticide resistance in Heliothis: Tolerance in larvae of H.. virescens as compared with H. zea to organophosphate insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol., 64 999-1002.
31 Plapp, F. W., Jr. (1972). Laboratory tests of alternate insecticides for control of methyl parathion resistant toabacco budworms.. J. Econ. Entomol., 65 903-04.
32 Plapp, F. W., Jr., Bogard, D. E., Darrow, D. I. And Eddy, G. W. (1961). Studies on the inheritance of resistance to DDT and malathion in the mosquito, Culex tarsalis Coq.. Mosq. News, 21 315-19.
33 Plapp, F. W., Jr., Jackman, J. A., Campanhola, C., Frisbie, R. E., Graves, J. B., Luttrell, R. G., Kitten, W. F. and Wall, M. (1990). Monitoring and management of pyrethroid resistance in the tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Texas, Mississippi, Louisana, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.. J. Econ. Entomol., 83 335-341.
34 Rodrigo Adarve, R. (1965). In: FAO 1967.
35 Simon, J.E. (1965). In: FAO 1967.
36 Sparks, T. C. (1981). Development of insecticide resistance in Heliothis zea and Heliothis virescens in North America.. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am., 27 186-92.
37 Twine, P. H. and Reynolds, H. T. (1980). Relative susceptibility and resistance of the tobacco budworm to methyl parathion and synthetic pyrethroids in southern California.. J. Econ. Entomol., 73 239-42.
38 Von Eickstedt 1961. (1961).
39 Von Eickstedt 1968. (1968).
40 Ware 1974. (1974).
41 Whitten, C. J. and Bull, D. L. (1970). Resistance to organophosphours insecticides in tobacco budworms.. J. Econ. Entomol., 63 1492-95.
42 Sayyed, A. H., Ahmad, M., and Crickmore, N. (2008). Fitness Cost Limit the Development of Resistance to Indoxacarb and Deltamethrin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 101 1927-1933.
43 Young, H.P., Bailey, W.D., Roe, R.M. (2003). Spinosad selection of a laboratory strain of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and characterization of resistance. Crop Protection, 22 265-273.

Location(s) Where Resistance is Reported

# Location

Other Reference

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