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phenacoccus solenopsis


Order Family Common Name(s) Group Host
homoptera pseudococcidae cotton mealybug AG cotton, ornamentals, vegetable crops

Shown Resistance to Active Ingredient(s)

  1. acetamiprid (#16)
  2. bifenthrin (#19)
  3. buprofezin (#2)
  4. carbosulfan (#7)
  5. chlorpyrifos (#10)
  6. cyhalothrin-lambda (#13)
  7. cypermethrin (#13)
  8. cyromazine (#6)
  9. deltamethrin (#20)
  10. emamectin benzoate (#8)
  11. endosulfan (#6)
  12. imidacloprid (#6)
  13. indoxacarb (#3)
  14. lufenuron (#5)
  15. methidathion (#8)
  16. methoxyfenozide (#4)
  17. nitenpyram (#4)
  18. profenofos (#13)
  19. pyriproxyfen (#6)
  20. spinosad (#2)
  21. spirotetramat
  22. thiacloprid (#8)
  23. thiamethoxam (#8)
  24. thiocyclam (#8)

Citation(s) of Resistance

# Citation
1 Shahzad Afzal, M., Ali Shad, S., Abbas N., Ayyaz, M., and Walker, W. (2014). Cross-resistance, the stability of acetamiprid resistance and its effect on the biological parameters of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Rseudococcidae), in Pakistan. Pest Management Science.
2 Saddiq, B., Shad, S. A., Ali Khan, H. A., Aslam, M., Ejaz, M., and Afzal, M. B. S. (2014). Resistance in the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Pakistan to selected organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Crop Protection, 66 29-33.
3 Shahzad Afzal, M. B., and Ali Shad, S. (2015). Resistance inheritance and mechanism to emamectin benzoate in Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Protection, 71 60-65.
4 Shahzad Afzal, M., Abbas, N., and Ali Shad, S. (2015). Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology.
5 Afzal, M.B.S., Ijaz, M., Farooq, Z., Ali Shad, S., and Abbas, N. (2015). Genetics and preliminary mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in Phenacocus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 119 42-47.
6 Saddiq, B., Shad, S., Aslam, M., Ijaz, M., and Abbas, N. (2015). Monitoring resistance of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to new chemical insecticides in Punjab, Pakistan. Crop Protection, 74 24-29.
7 Afzal, M., Shad, S., Basoalto, E., Ejaz, M., and Serrao, J. (2015). Characterization of indoxacarb resistance in Phenococcus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): Cross-resistance, stability and fitness cost. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 18 779-785.
8 Afzal, M. and Shad, S. (2016). Genetic analysis, realized heritability and synergistic suppression of indoxacarb resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Protection, 84 62-68.
9 Saddiq, B., Abbas, N., Shad, S., Aslam, M., and Afzal, M. (2016). Deltamethrin resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenococcus solenopsis Tinsley: Cross-resistance to other insecticides, fitness cost analysis and realized heritability. Phytoparasitica, 44 83-90.
10 Ahmad, M. and Akhtar, S. (2016). Development of resistance to insecticide in the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Pakistan. Crop Protection, 88 96-102.
11 Afzal, M., and Shad, S. (2016). Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudoccoccidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis. Neotropical Entomology, 45 310-319.
12 Ijaz, M., Afzal, M., and Shad, S. (2016). Resistance risk analysis to acetamiprid and other insecticides in Acetamiprid-Selected population of Phenacoccus solenopsis. Phytoparasitica, 44 177-186.
13 Mansoor, M.M., Afzal, M.B., Esoalto, E., Raza, A.B.M., and Banazeer, A. (2016). Selection of bifenthrin resistance in cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): Cross-resistance, realized heritability and possible resistance mechanism. Crop Protection, 87 55-59.
14 Ejaza, M., Ullaha, S., Shada, S. A., Abbasa, N., and Binyameen, M. (2019). Characterization of inheritance and preliminary biochemical mechanisms of spirotetramat resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley: An economic pest from Pakistan . Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology.
15 Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Masood Ejaz, Mamuna Ijaz,. (2018). Selection, cross-resistance, and resistance risk assessment to deltamethrin in laboratory selected Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Protection, 112 67-73.
16 Afzal, M. B. S., Shad, S. A., Ejaz, M. and Serrao, J. E. (2019). Laboratory selection, cross-resistance, and estimations of realized heritability of indoxacarb resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Pest Management Science.
17 Banazeer, A., Afzal, S.B.M., Ijaz, M. and Shad, A.S. (2019). Spinosad resistance selected in the laboratory strain of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae): studies on risk assessment and cross-resistance patterns. Phytoparasitica, 47 531–542.

Location(s) Where Resistance is Reported

# Location

Other Reference

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