Skip to main content

helicoverpa armigera

Profile

Order Family Common Name(s) Group Host
lepidoptera noctuidae cotton bollworm AG cotton, corn, sorghum, tomato

Shown Resistance to Active Ingredient(s)

  1. abamectin (#7)
  2. azinphos-methyl
  3. Bacillus thuringiensis (var. unspecified) (#3)
  4. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (#13)
  5. Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (#2)
  6. bifenthrin (#19)
  7. Carbamates - Unspecified in Literature (#5)
  8. carbaryl (#23)
  9. chlorpyrifos (#51)
  10. cyfluthrin (#4)
  11. cyfluthrin-beta (#5)
  12. cyhalothrin (#3)
  13. cyhalothrin-gamma (#9)
  14. cyhalothrin-lambda (#53)
  15. cypermethrin (#185)
  16. Cypermethrin + PBO (#2)
  17. cypermethrin-alpha (#4)
  18. cypermethrin-zeta
  19. DDT (#16)
  20. deltamethrin (#54)
  21. deltamethrin + DEF
  22. deltamethrin + PBO (#3)
  23. emamectin benzoate (#3)
  24. endosulfan (#61)
  25. endrin (#2)
  26. esfenvalerate (#3)
  27. etofenprox (#3)
  28. fenvalerate (#60)
  29. flucythrinate
  30. flumethrin
  31. indoxacarb (#18)
  32. isoxathion
  33. malathion
  34. methomyl (#105)
  35. monocrotophos (#31)
  36. MVP II (Cry1AC) (#2)
  37. parathion-methyl (#2)
  38. permethrin (#4)
  39. phoxim (#32)
  40. profenofos (#28)
  41. quinalphos (#17)
  42. spinosad (#8)
  43. tau-fluvalinate
  44. tefluthrin
  45. tetramethrin
  46. thiodicarb (#4)
  47. toxaphene
  48. transfluthrin

Citation(s) of Resistance

# Citation
1 Ahmad, M., M.I. Arif, and M.R. Attique. (1997). Pyrethroid resistance of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Nocutuidae) in Pakistan. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87 343-347.
2 Wu, K., G. Liang, and Y. Guo. (1997). Phoxim Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(4) 868-872.
3 Glenn, D.C., A.A. Hoffman, and G. McDonald. (1994). Resistance to Pyrethroids in Helcoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Corn: Adult Resistance, larval Resistance, and Fitness Effects. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(5) 1165-1171.
4 Gunning, R.V. (1993). Comparison of Two Bioassay Techniques for larvae of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(2) 234-238.
5 Ahmad, M., M.I. Arif, and Z. Ahmad. (1995). Monitoring Insecticide Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4) 771-776.
6 Ahmad, M., R.T. Gladwell, and A.R. McGaffery. (1989). Decreased Nerve Sensitivity is a mechanism of resistance in a pyrethroid resistant strain of heliothis armigera from thailand. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 35 165-171.
7 McCaffery, A.R., and A.J. Walker. (1991). Insecticide Resistance in the Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera from Indonesia. Pesticide Science, 32 85-90.
8 Armes, N.J., D.R. Jadhav, G.S. Bond, and A.B.S. King. (1992). Insecticide Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in south India. Pesticide Science, 34 355-364.
9 Gunning, R.V., M.E. Balfe, and C.S. Easton. (1992). Carbamate Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidooptera: Noctuidae) in Austrailia. Journal of the Austrailian Entomological Society, 31 97-103.
10 Gunning, R.V., and C.S. Easton. (1989). Pyrethroid Resistance in Heliothis armigera collected from unsprayed maize crops in new south wales 1983-1987. Journal of the Austrailian Entomological Society, 28 57-61.
11 Cen, W. (1992). Investigation on the Resisance Level of The Cotton Bollworm Heliothis armigera to Four Kinds of Pyrethroid Pesticides in China in 1991. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 4 17-21.
12 Srivastava, C.P. (1995). Insecticide Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in India. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 7 4-5.
13 Daly, J.C., and G.P. Fitt. (1990). Resistance Frequencies in Overwintering Pupae and the First Spring Generation of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Selective Mortality and Immigration. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(5) 1682-1688.
14 Martin, T., G.O. Ochou, M. Vaissayre, and D. Fournier. (2003). Monitoring of insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) from 1998 to 2002 in Cote d'Ivorie, West Africa. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 12(2) 51-55.
15 Cooke, L.R. (2002). Evidence of shift in susceptibility of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac in Australia Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Resistance Pest Management Newsletter, 11(2) 44-48.
16 Martin, T., G.O. Ochou, M. Vaissayre, and D. Fournier. (2002). Positive and negative cross-resistance to pyrethroids in Helicoverpa armigera from West Africa. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 12(1) 16-19.
17 Gunning, R.V., G.D. Moores, and A. Devonshire. (1996). Insensitive acetylcholinesterase and resistance to thiodicarb in Australian Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidopera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 55 21-28.
18 Fengxia, M., J. Shen, W. Zhou, and H. Cen. (2003). Long-term selection for resistance to transgenic cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).. Pest Managment Science, 60 167-172.
19 Kranthi, K.R., D.R. Jadhav, S. Kranthi, R.R. Wanjari, S.S. Ali, and D.A. Russell. (2002). Insecticide resistance in five major insect pests of cotton in India.. Crop Protection, 21 449-460.
20 Ahmad, M., M.I. Arif, and Z. Ahmad. (2001). Resistance to carbamate insecticides in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.. Crop Protection, 20 427-432.
21 Ren, X., Z. Han, and Y. Wang. (2002). Mechanisms of Monocrotophos resistance in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera ( Hubner). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 51 103-110.
22 Torres-Vila, L.M., M.C. Rodriquez-Molina, A. Lacasa-Plasencia, P. Bielza-Lino, and A. Rodriguez-del-Rincon. (2002). Pyrethroid resistance of Helicoverpa armigera in Spain: current status and agroecological perspective.. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 93 55-66.
23 Kranthi, K.R., Jadhav, D., Wanjari, R., Kranthi, S., Russell, D. (2001). Pyrethroid Resistance and Mechanisms of Resistance in Field Strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(1) 253-263.
24 Kranthi, K.R., Jadhav, D.R., Wanjari, R.R., Ali, S.S., Russell, D. (2001). Carbamate and organophosphate resistance in cotton pests in India, 1995 to 1999.. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 91 37-46.
25 Wu, K., Mu, W., Liang, G., Guo, Y. (2005). Regional reversion of insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is associated with the use of Bt cotton in northern China. Pest Management Science, 61 491-498.
26 Chen, S., Yang, Y., Wu, Y. (2005). Correlation between Fenvalerate Resistance and Cytochrome P450-mediated O-Demethylation Activity in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(3) 943-946.
27 Fakrudin, B., Vijaykumar, Krishnareddy, K.B., Patil, B.V., Kuruvinashetty, M.S. (2004). Status of Insecticide Resistance in Geographical Populations of Coton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera in South Indian Cotton Ecosystem During 2002-03. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 13(2).
28 Yang, Y., Wu. Y., Chen, S., Devine, G.J., Denholm, I., Jewess, P., Moores, G.D. (2004). The involvement of microsomal oxidases in pyrethroid resistance in Helicoverpa armigera from Asia. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 34 763-773.
29 Bues, R., Bouvier, J.C., Boudinhon, L. (2005). Insecticide resistance and mechanisms of resistance to selected strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the south of France.. Crop Protection, 24 814-820.
30 Yang, E., Yang, Y., Wu, S., Wu, Y. (2005). Relative contribution of detoxifying enzymes to pyrethroid resistance in a resistant strain of Helicoverpa armigera. Journal of Applied Entomology, 129 (9/10) 521-525.
31 Brevault, T., and Achaleke, J. (2005). Status of pyrethroid resistance in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, in Cameroon. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 15(1) 4-7.
32 Rao, G.M.V.R., Rao, N.H., Raju, K. (2005). Insecticide Resistance in field populations of American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 15(1) 15-17.
33 Xu, X., Yu, Y., Wu, Y. (2005). Disruption of a Cadherin Gene Associated with Resistance to Cry1Ac delta-Endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in Helicoverpa armigera. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(2) 948-954.
34 Gunning, R. V., Easton, C. S., Greenup, L. R. and Edge, V. E. (1984). Pyrethroid resistance in Heliothis armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia.. J. Econ. Entomol., 77 1283-87.
35 Ahmad, M. and A. R. McCaffery. (1988). Resistance to insecticides in a Thailand strain of Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) J.. Econ. Entomol., 81 45-48.
36 Anon. 1974a. (1974). Communication to FAO. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacologia, Oerias, Portugal.
37 (1969). Report of the Fourth Session of the FAO Working Party of Experts on Resistance of Pests to Pesticides.. FAO, Rome 1968.
38 Goodyer, G. J. and Greenup, L. R. (1980). A survey of insecticide resistance in the cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in New South Wales.. Gen. Appl. Enotomol., 2 37-39.
39 McCaffery, A. R., King, A. B. S., Walker, A. J. and El-Nayir, H. (1989). Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in the bollworm, Beliothis armigera from Andhra Pradesh, India.. Pestic. Sci., 27 65-76.
40 McClanahan, R.J. (1974). Communication to FAO.
41 Pasfield, G.A. (1974). Communication to FAO.
42 Rimes, G.D. (1974). Communication to FAO.
43 Smirnova, A.A. and Sookhoroochenko, F.I. (1974). Communication to FAO.
44 Tang, Z. H., Gong, K. Y. and You, Z. P. (1988). Present status and countermeasures of insecticide resistance in agricultural pests in China.. Pestic. Sci., 23 189-198.
45 Twine, P. H. and Kay, I. R. (1973). Heliothis species and DDT resistance.. Queensl. Agric. J., 99 520-22.
46 Wangboonkong, S. (1986). Field trial on chemical control for the cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera Hubner, in Thailand.. Cotton Conference, Coolangatta, Queensland, Australia, August 1986..
47 McCaffery et al. 1986. (1986).
48 Ahmad, Mushtaq, Denholm, Ian, and Bromilow, Richard H. (2006). Delayed cuticular penetration and enhanced metabolism of deltamethrin in pyrethroid-resistance strains of Helicoverpa armigera from China and Pakistan. Pest Management Science, 62 805-810.
49 Gunning, R. V., Moores, G. D., Jewess, P., Boyes, A. L., Devonshire, A. L., and Khambay, B. P. S. (2007). Use of pyrethroid analogues to identify key structural features for enhanced esterase resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Management Science, 63 569-575.
50 Djihinto, A.C., Katary, A., Prudent, P., Vassal, J.M., Vaissayre, M. (2009). Variation in Resistance to Pyrethoids in Helicoverpa armigera From Benin Republic, West Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 5 1928-1934.
51 Achaleke, J., Martin, T., Ghogomu, R.T., Vaissayre, M., Brevault, T. (2009). Esterase-mediated resistance to pyrethoids in field populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Central Africa. Pest Management Science, 65 1147-1154.
52 Aheer, G.M., Aziz, M.A., Hameed, A., Ali, A. (2009). Evaluation of resistance to different insecticides in field strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Punjab, Pakistan. Entomological Research, 39 159-167.
53 Tan, J., McCaffery, A.R. (2007). Efficacy of various pyrethroid structures against a highly metabolically resistant isogenic strain of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China. Pest Management Science, 63 960-968.
54 Kay, I.R. (1977). Insecticide Resistance in Heliothis Armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in areas of Queensland, Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 16 43-45.
55 Achaleke, J., Brevault, T. (2010). Inheritance and stability of pyrethroid resistance in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Central Africa. Pest Management Science, 66 137-141.
56 Barale, A., Hema, O., Martin, T., Suraporn, S., Audant, P., Sezutsu, H., Feyereisen, R. (2010). Multiple P450 genes overexpressed in deltamethrin-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera . Pest Management Science , 66 900-909.
57 Cameron, P.J., Walker, G.P., Herman, T.J.B. (1995). Development of resistance to fenvalerate in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop Horticultaral Science, 23 429-436.
58 T. Brevault, J. Achaleke, S.P. Sougnabe, and M. Vaissayre. (2008). Tracking pyrethroid resistance in the polyphagous bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lipidoptera: Noctuidae), in the shifting landscape of a cotton-growing area . Bulletin of Entomological Research , 98 565-573.
59 D. Wang, W. Qiu, X. Ren, F. Niu, K. Wang. (2009). Resistance selection and biochemical characterization of spinosad resistance in Helicoverpa armigera. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 95 90-94.
60 Avilla, C., Gonzalez-Zamora, J. (2010). Monitoring resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to different insecticides used in cotton in Spain . Crop Protection , 29 100-103.
61 Kaur, P., and Dilawari, V. K. (2011). Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from India. Pest Management Science, 67 1294-1302.
62 Alvi, A., Sayyed, A., Naeem, M., and Ali, M. (2012). Field Evolved Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ac in Pakistan. Public Library of Science One, 7 1-9.
63 Yang, Y., Li, y., and Wu, Y. (2013). Current Status of Insecticide Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera After 15 Years of Bt Cotton Planting in China. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106 375-381.
64 Karaağaç, U., Konuş, M., and Büyük, M. (2013). Determination of Susceptibility Levels of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Strains Collected from Different Regions to Some Insecticides in Turkey. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 15(1) 37-54.
65 Zhang, W.N., Xiao, H.J., Liang, G.M., Guo, Y.Y., Wu, K.M. (2014). Tradeoff between reproduction and resistance evolutin to Bt-toxin in Helicoverpa armigera by vitellogenin gene expression. Bulletin of Entomological Research.
66 Zhang, W.N., Xiao, H.J., Liang, G.M., Guo, Y.Y., Wu, K.M. (2014). Tradeoff between reproduction and resistance evolutin to Bt-toxin in Helicoverpa armigera by vitellogenin gene expression. Bulletin of Entomological Research.
67 Zhang, L.L., Liang, G.M., Gao, X.W., Cao, G.C., Guo, Y.Y. (2014). Characterization and Functional Analysis of b-1, 3-Galactosyltransferase Involved with Cry1Ac Resistance from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Integrative Agriculture.
68 Abd El-Latif, A., Kranthi, K., Kranthi, S., Sarwar, A., and Subrahmanyam, B. (2014). Overexpression of cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 mediated phrethroid resistance in Indian strains of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Journal of Plant Protection Research, 54 287-293.
69 Konus, M., Ugurlu Karaagac, S., and Iscan, M. (2014). Analysis of Molecular Resistance Mechanisms in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Populations Under Pyrethroid Stress in Turkey. Journal of Entomological Research Society, 16 81-92.
70 Qayyum, M., Wakil, W., Arif, M., Sahi, S., Saeed, N., and Russell, D. (2015). Multiple Resistances Against Formulated Organophosphates, Pyrethroids, and Newer-Chemistry Insecticides in Populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan. Journal of Economic Entomology 1-8.
71 Xu, Li., Li., D., Qin, J., Zhao, W., and Qiu, L. (2016). Over-expression of multiple cytochrome P450 genes in fenvalerate-resistant field strains of Helicoverpa armigera from north of China. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 132 53-58.
72 Gunning, R. V., Balfe, M. E., and Easton, C. S. (1992). Carbamate Resistance in Helicoverpa Armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 31 97-103.
73 Bird, L. J., Drynan, L. J., and Walker, P. W. (2017). The Use of F2 Screening for Detection of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate, Chlorantraniliprole, and Indoxacarb in Australian Populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lipidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(2) 651-659.
74 Akhurst, Raymond., James, William., Bird, Lisa., and Beard, Cheryl. (2003). Resistance to the Cry1Ac delta-Endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(4) 1290-1299.
75 Chen, W., Liu, C., Xiao, Y., Zhang, D., Zhang, Y., Li, X., Tabashnik, B. E. and Wu, K. (2015). A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera. PLOS ONE, 10(4).

Location(s) Where Resistance is Reported

# Location

Other Reference

Google Search for helicoverpa armigera