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spodoptera frugiperda

Profile

Order Family Common Name(s) Group Host
lepidoptera noctuidae fall armyworm AG cotton, grains, grasses, sugarcane

Shown Resistance to Active Ingredient(s)

  1. acephate
  2. aldrin
  3. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa
  4. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (#3)
  5. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (#5)
  6. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F (#58)
  7. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 (#2)
  8. Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A (#5)
  9. bifenthrin (#2)
  10. carbaryl (#7)
  11. chlorantraniliprole (#12)
  12. Chlorantraniliprole
  13. chlorpyrifos (#17)
  14. chlorpyrifos + DEM
  15. chlorpyrifos + PBO
  16. Cry1A.105
  17. cyantraniliprole (#2)
  18. cyfluthrin
  19. cyhalothrin
  20. cyhalothrin-lambda (#19)
  21. cypermethrin (#2)
  22. cypermethrin-zeta
  23. DDT (#3)
  24. deltamethrin (#8)
  25. diazinon (#2)
  26. dichlorvos
  27. dieldrin
  28. emamectin benzoate (#21)
  29. fenvalerate (#5)
  30. flubendiamide (#8)
  31. fluvalinate
  32. indoxacarb (#12)
  33. lindane (#2)
  34. lufenuron (#2)
  35. malathion (#6)
  36. methomyl (#6)
  37. parathion-methyl (#4)
  38. permethrin (#5)
  39. phoxim (#3)
  40. Spinetoram (#6)
  41. spinosad (#5)
  42. sulprofos
  43. tau-fluvalinate
  44. thiodicarb (#2)
  45. tralomethrin
  46. trichlorfon
  47. triflumuron

Citation(s) of Resistance

# Citation
1 Yu, S.J. (1992). Detection and Biochemical Characterization of insecticide resistance in Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(3) 675-682.
2 Angeles 1965. (1965).
3 Gastelum, R. L. (1985). Susceptibilidad a insecticidas en poblaciones de gusano cogollero del maiz, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de varias localidades de Mexico. M. S. thesis, Colegio de Postgraduados, Chapingo, Mexico, 128 pp..
4 Sanchez, D. M. (1965). In: FAO 1967.
5 Teran 1968. (1968).
6 Wood, K. A., Wilson, B. H. and Graves, J. B. (1981). Influence of host plant on the susceptibility of the fall armyworm to insecticides.. J. Econ. Entomol., 74 96-98.
7 Young, J. R. and McMillan, W. W. (1979). Differential feeding by two strains of fall armyworm larvae on carbaryl treated surfaces.. J. Econ. Entomol., 72 202-03.
8 Young 1968. (1968).
9 Al-Sarar, Ali, Hall, Franklin R., and Downer, Roger A. (2006). Impact of spray application methodology on the development of resistance to cypermethrin and spinosad by fall armyworm Spodoptera fruiperda (JE Smith). Pest Management Science, 62 1023-1031.
10 Storer, N. P., Babcock, J. M., Schlenz, M., Meade, T., Thompson, G. D., Bing, J. W., and Huckaba, R., M. (2010). Discovery and Characterization of Field Resistance to Bt Maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103 (4) 1031-1038.
11 Rios-Diez, J., and Saldamando-Benjumea, C. (2011). Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains from central Colombia to two insecticides, methomyl and lambda-cyhalothrin: a study of the genetic basis of resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104 1698-1705.
12 Blanco, C., Portilla, M., Jurat-Fuentes, J., Sanchez, J., Viteri, D., Vega-Aquino, P., Teran-Vargas, A., Azuara-Dominguez, A., Lopez, J., Arias, R., Zhu, Y., Lugo-Barrera, D., and Jackson, R. (2010). Susceptibility of Isofamilies of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Southwestern Entomologist, 35 409-415.
13 Leon-Garcia, I., Rodriguez-Leyva, E., Ortega-Arenas, L. D., Solis-Aguilar, J. F. (2012). Insecticide susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) associated with turfgrass at Quintana Roo, Mexico. Agrociencia, 46 279-287.
14 Velez, A. M., Spencer, T. A., Alves, A. P., Moellenbeck, D., Meagher, R. L., Chirakkal, H., and Siegfried, B. D. (2013). Inheritance of Cry1F resistance, cross-resistance and frequency of resistant alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 103 700-713.
15 Farias, J.R., Andow, D.A., Horikoshi, R.J., Sorgatto, R.J., Fresia, P., dos Santos, A.C. and Omoto, C. (2014). Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil. Crop Protection, 64 150-158.
16 Nascimento, A. R. B., Farias, J. R., Bernardi, D., Horikoshi, R. J., and Omoto, C. (2015). Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron. Pest Management Science .
17 Santos-Amaya, O., Tavares, C., Monteiro, H., Teixeira, T., Guedes, R., Alves, A., and Pereira, E. (2016). Genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in two Brazilian populations of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Crop Protection, 81 154-162.
18 Carvalho, R.A., Omoto, C., Field, L.M., Williamson, M.S., and Bass, C. (2013). Investigating the Molecular Mechanisms of Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. PLOS ONE, 8.
19 Zhu, Y., Blanco, C., Portilla, M., Adamczyk, J., Luttrell, R., Huang, F. (2014). Evidence of multiple/cross resistance to Bt and organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rico population of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 2015 15-21.
20 Diez-Rodriguez, G. and Omoto, Celso. (2001). Inheritance of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Neotropical Entomology, 30 311-316.
21 Omoto, Celso, Bernardi, Oderlei, Salmeron, Eloisa, Sorgatto, R., Dourado, P., Crivellari, A., Carvalho, R., Willse, A., Martinelli, S., and Head, G. (2016). Field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab maize by Spodoptera frugiperda in Brazil. Pest Management Science 1727-1736.
22 Farias, J., Horikoshi, R., Santos, A., and Omoto, C. (2014). Geographical and Temporal Variability in Susceptibility to Cry1F Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations in Brazil. Journal of Economic Entomology, 107(6) 2182-2189.
23 Morillo, F. and Notz, A. (2001). Resistencia de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a lambdacihalotrina y metomyil.. Entomotropica, 16 (2) 79-87.
24 Yu, S. J. (1991). Insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 39 84-91.
25 Yu, S. J., Nguyen, S. N., Abo-Elghar, G. E. (2003). Biochemical characteristics of insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 77 1-11.
26 Diez-Rodriguez, G. I. and Omoto, C. (2001). Herenca da resistemcia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a lambda-cialotrina. Neotropical Entomology, 30 (2) 311-316.
27 Nascimento, A. R. B. D., Farias, J. R., Bernardi, D., Horikoshi, R. J. and Omoto, C. (2016). Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron. Pest Management Science, 72(4) 810-815.
28 Yang, F., Kerns, D. L., Head, G., Brown, S., Huang, F. (2017). Susceptibility of Cry1F-maize resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt proteins used in the transgenic cotton. Crop Protection, 98 128-135.
29 Jakka, S. R. K., Knight, V. R., Jurat-Fuentes, J. L. (2014). Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize are susceptible to Bt pesticides. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 122 52-54.
30 Storer, N. P., Kubiszak, M. E., King, J. E., Thompson, G. D., Santos, A. C. (2012). Status of resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: Lessons from Puerto Rico. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110 294-300.
31 Leite, N. A., Mendes, S. M., Santos-Amaya, O. F., Santos, C. A., Teixeira, T. P. M., Guedes, R. N. and Pereira, E. G. (2016). Rapid selection and characterization of Cry1F resistance in a Brazilian strain of fall armyworm. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 158 236-247.
32 Huang, F., Qureshi, J. A., Head, G. P., Price, P. A., Levy, R., Yang, F. and Niu, Y. (2016). Frequency of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 resistance alleles in field populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Louisiana and Florida. Crop Protection, 83 83-89.
33 Li, G., Reisig, D., Miao, J., Gould, F., Huang, F. and Feng, H. (2016). Frequency of Cry1F non-recessive resistance alleles in North Carolina field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PLOS ONE, 11.
34 Niu, Y., Qureshi, J. A., Ni, X., Head, G. P., Price, P. A., Meagher Jr., R. L., Kerns, D., Levy, R., Yang, X. and Huang, F. (2016). F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the United States. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 138 66-72.
35 Monnerat, R., Martins, E., Macedo, C., Queiroz, P., Praca, L., Soares, C. M., Moreira, H., Grisi, I., Silva, J., Soberon, M. and Bravo, A. (2015). Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins. PLOS ONE, 10.
36 Huang, F., Qureshi, J. A., Meagher Jr., R. L., Reising, D. D., Head, G. P., Andow, D. A., Ni, X., Kerns, D., Buntin, G. D., Niu, Y., Yang, F. and Dangal, V. (2014). Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize. PLOS ONE, 9.
37 Camargo, A. M., Castanera, P., Farinos, G. P., Huang, F. (2017). Comparative analysis of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda originated from Puerto Rico and Florida. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 146 47-52.
38 Yang, F., Kerns, D. L., Head, G. P., Price, P. and Huang, F. (2017). Cross-resistance to purified Bt proteins, Bt corn and Bt cotton in a Cry2Ab2-corn resistant strain of Spodoptera frugiperda. Pest Management Science, 73 2495-2503.
39 Okuma, D. M., Bernardi, D., Horikoshi, R. J., Bernardi, O., Silva, A. P., and Omoto, C. (2017). Inheritance and fitness cost of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to spinosad in Brazil. Pest Management Science, 10.1002 4289.
40 Chandrasena, D.I., Signorini, A.M., Abratti, G., Storer, N.P., Olaciregui, M.L., Alves, A.P. and Pilcher, C.D. (2018). Characterization of field‐evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis‐derived Cry1F δ‐endotoxin in Spodoptera frugiperda populations from Argentina. Pest Management Science, 74 746-754.
41 Yang, F., Morsello, S., Head, G. P., Sansone, C., Huang, F., Gilreath, R. T., and Kerns, D. L. (2018). F2 screen, inheritance and cross-resistance of field-derived Vip3A resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected from Louisiana, USA. Pest Management Science, 74 1769-1778.
42 Gutiérrez-Moreno, R., Mota-Sanchez, D., Blanco, C. A., Whalon, M. E., Terán-Santofimio, H., Rodriguez-Maciel, J. C., and DiFonzo, C. (2018). Field-evolved resistance of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to synthetic insecticides in Puerto Rico and Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology.
43 Bolzan, A., Padovez, Nascimento, A. R. B., Kaiser, I. S., Lira, E. S., Amaral, F. S. A., Kanno, R. H., Malaquias, J. B., and Omoto, C. (2019). Selection and characterization of the inheritance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to chlorantraniliprole and cross-resistance to other diamide insecticides. Pest Management Science.
44 Yang, F., Williams, J., Porter, P., Huang, F. and Kerns, D. L. (2019). F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa51 protein in feld populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Texas, USA. Crop Protection, 126 104915.
45 Lira, E.C., Bolzan, A., Nascimento, A.R., Amaral, F.S., Kanno, R.H., Kaiser, I.S. and Omoto, C. (2020). Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to spinetoram: inheritance and cross‐resistance to spinosad. . Pest Management Science, 76 2674-2680.
46 Abdelgaffar H, Perera OP and Jurat-Fuentes JL. (2020). ABC transporter mutations in Cry1F-resistant fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) do not result in altered susceptibility to selected small molecule pesticides.. Pest Management Science, 77 949-955.
47 Gutierrez-Moreno R, Mota-Sanchez D, Blanco CA, Chandrasena D, Difonzo C, Conner J, Head G, Berman K and Wise J. (2020). Susceptibility of Fall Armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E.) from Mexico and Puerto Rico to Bt Proteins.. Insects, 11 831.
48 Boaventura D, Buer B, Hamaekers N, Maiwald F and Nauen R. (2020). Toxicological and molecular profiling of insecticide resistance in a Brazilian strain of fall armyworm resistant to Bt Cry1 proteins. Pest Management Science.
49 Gilreath RT, Kerns DL, Huang F and Yang F. (2021). Genetic basis of resistance to the Vip3Aa Bt protein in Helicoverpa zea. . Pest Management Science, 77 1963-1970.
50 Hafeez, M.; Li, X.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, J.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Shah, S.; Khan, M.M.; Xu, F.; Fernández-Grandon, G.M.; et al. (2021). De Novo Transcriptomic Analyses Revealed Some Detoxification Genes and Related Pathways Responsive to Noposion Yihaogong® 5% EC (Lambda-Cyhalothrin 5%) Exposure in Spodoptera frugiperda Third-Instar Larvae.. 2021 Feb 3;12(2):132. doi: 10.3390/insects12020132. PMID: 33546242; PMCID: PMC7913311. Format:, 12.
51 Dan-dan Zhang, Yu-tao Xiao, Peng-jun Xu, Xian-ming Yang, Qiu-lin W and Kong-ming Wu. (2021). Insecticide resistance monitoring for the invasive populations of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in China.. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20 783-791.
52 Garlet, C. G., Gubiani, P. S., Palharini, R. B., Moreira, R. P., Godoy, D. N., Farias, J. R., and Bernardi, O. (2021). Field-evolved resistance to chlorpyrifos by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Inheritance mode, cross-resistance patterns, and synergism. Pest Management Science.
53 Garlet, C.G., Gubiani, P.d.S., Palharini, R.B., Moreira, R.P., Godoy, D.N., Farias, J.R. and Bernardi, O. (2021). Field-evolved resistance to chlorpyrifos by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Inheritance mode, cross-resistance patterns, and synergism. Pest Management Science, 77 5367-5376.
54 Yang F., Williams J.,Huang F., and Kerns D.L. (2021). Genetic basis and cross-resistance of Vip3Aa resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) derived from Texas, USA. Crop Protection, 147.
55 Muraro, D.S., de Oliveira Abbade Neto, D., Kanno, R.H., Kaiser, I.S., Bernardi, O. and Omoto, C. (2021). Inheritance patterns, cross-resistance and synergism in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistant to emamectin benzoate. Pest Management Science, 77 5049-5057.
56 Elias Oliveira Padovez, F., Hideo Kanno, R., Omoto, C. and Sartori Guidolin, A. (2021). Fitness costs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains with different genetic backgrounds. . Pest Management Science, 78 1279-1286.
57 Julien M Beuzelin, Donna J Larsen, Erik L Roldán and Eric Schwan Resende. (2022). usceptibility to Chlorantraniliprole in Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations Infesting Sweet Corn in Southern Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 115.
58 Jin, M., Tao, J., Li Q., Cheng Y., Sun X., Wu K., and Xiao Y. (2021). Genome editing of the SfABCC2 gene confers resistance to Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20 815–820.
59 Fernando Elias Oliveira Padovez, Rubens Hideo Kanno, Celso Omoto and Aline Sartori Guidolin. (2021). Fitness costs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strains with different genetic backgrounds. Pest Management Science, 78 1279–1286.
60 Okuma, D. M., Cuenca, A., Nauen, R., and Omoto, C. (2022). Large-Scale Monitoring of the Frequency of Ryanodine Receptor Target-Site Mutations Conferring Diamide Resistance in Brazilian Field Populations of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). 13 626.
61 Muraro, D. S., Salmeron, E., Cruz, J. V. S., Amaral, F. S. A., Guidolin, A. S., Nascimento, A. R. B., Malaquias, J. B., Bernardi, O., and Omoto, C. (2022). Evidence of field-evolved resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to emamectin benzoate in Brazil. Crop Protection, 162 106071.
62 Guo, Z., Guo, Z., Gao, J., Huang, G., Wan, H., He, S., Xie, Y., Li, J., & Ma, K. (2022). Detection of insecticide susceptibility and target-site mutations in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Pest Management.
63 Okuma, D.M.; Cuenca, A.; Nauen, R.; Omoto, C. (2022). Large-Scale Monitoring of the Frequency of Ryanodine Receptor Target-Site Mutations Conferring Diamide Resistance in Brazilian Field Populations of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).. Insects, 13.
64 do Nascimento, A. R. B., Rodrigues, J. G., Kanno, R. H., de Amaral, F. S. A. E., Malaquias, J. B., Silva-Brandão, K. L., Cônsoli, F. L., & Omoto, C. (2023). Susceptibility monitoring and comparative gene expression of susceptible and resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos.. Pest management science, 79 6.
65 Su, X. N., Li, C. Y., & Zhang, Y. P. (2023). Chlorpyrifos and chlorfenapyr resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) relies on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. . Journal of economic entomology, 116 1329-1341.
66 Hafeez, M., Li, X., Ullah, F., Zhang, Z., Zhang, J., Huang, J., Chen, L., Siddiqui, J. A., Ren, X., Zhou, S., Imran, M., Assiri, M. A., Zalucki, M. P., Lou, Y., & Lu, Y. (2022). Characterization of Indoxacarb Resistance in the Fall Armyworm: Selection, Inheritance, Cross-Resistance, Possible Biochemical Mechanisms, and Fitness Costs.. Biology.
67 Chen, H. L., Hasnain, A., Cheng, Q. H., Xia, L. J., Cai, Y. H., Hu, R., Gong, C. W., Liu, X. M., Pu, J., Zhang, L., & Wang, X. G. (2023). Resistance monitoring and mechanism in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for chlorantraniliprole from Sichuan Province, China.. Frontiers in physiology.
68 Mao, K. K., Li, H. R., Zhu, J. Y., Jin, M. H., Wang, P., Peng, Y., & Xiao, Y. T. (2023). Rapid test to detect insecticide resistance in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).. Frontiers in physiology, 14.
69 Su, X. N., Li, C. Y., & Zhang, Y. P. (2023). Chlorpyrifos and chlorfenapyr resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) relies on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Journal of economic entomology, 116 1329–1341.
70 Hafeez, M., Li, X., Ullah, F., Zhang, Z., Zhang, J., Huang, J., Fernández-Grandon, G. M., Khan, M. M., Siddiqui, J. A., Chen, L., Ren, X. Y., Zhou, S., Lou, Y., & Lu, Y. (2022). Down-Regulation of P450 Genes Enhances Susceptibility to Indoxacarb and Alters Physiology and Development of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugipreda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).. Frontiers in physiology, 13.
71 Kanno, Rubens & Guidolin, Aline & Padovez, Fernando & Rodrigues, Juliana & Omoto, Celso. (2023). Fitness costs associated with spinetoram resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda is driven by host plants.. Journal of Pest Science. 1-11.
72 Okuma, D. M., Cuenca, A., Nauen, R., & Omoto, C. (2022). Large-Scale Monitoring of the Frequency of Ryanodine Receptor Target-Site Mutations Conferring Diamide Resistance in Brazilian Field Populations of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).. Insects, 13.
73 do Nascimento, A. R. B., Rodrigues, J. G., Kanno, R. H., de Amaral, F. S. A. E., Malaquias, J. B., Silva-Brandão, K. L., Cônsoli, F. L., & Omoto, C. (2023). Susceptibility monitoring and comparative gene expression of susceptible and resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos. Pest management science, 79.
74 do Nascimento, A. R. B., Rodrigues, J. G., Kanno, R. H., de Amaral, F. S. A. E., Malaquias, J. B., Silva-Brandão, K. L., Cônsoli, F. L., & Omoto, C. (2023). Susceptibility monitoring and comparative gene expression of susceptible and resistant strains of Spodoptera frugiperda to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos. Pest management science, 79.

Location(s) Where Resistance is Reported

# Location
1 17 -- Bolivia -- 4
2 95 -- Mexico -- 4
3 111 -- Paraguay -- 4
4 157 -- USA -- 4
5 159 -- Venezuela -- 4
6 171 -- USA -- Georgia -- Ashburn -- 4
7 175 -- USA -- Louisiana -- 4
8 179 -- USA -- Florida -- 4
9 4172 -- Puerto Rico -- Santa Isabel -- SI -- 4
10 4296 -- Puerto Rico -- VEH farms -- 4
11 4297 -- Puerto Rico -- Juana Diaz -- ICIA farm -- 4
12 4298 -- Puerto Rico -- Sabana Grande -- SG -- 4
13 4530 -- Colombia -- Tolima -- Ambalema and Buenos Aires -- 4
14 4531 -- Colombia -- Tolima -- Mariquita and San Luis -- 4
15 5418 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
16 5419 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
17 5422 -- USA -- 4
18 5444 -- Mexico -- Quintana Roo -- Riviera Maya -- Iberostar Playa Paraiso Golf Club -- 4
19 6358 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
20 8778 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- Barreiras -- 4
21 10971 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Montevidiu -- 4
22 11423 -- Brazil -- 4
23 11424 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Morrinhos -- 4
24 11924 -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais -- 4
25 11925 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso States -- 4
26 11926 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
27 11927 -- Brazil -- 4
28 11928 -- Brazil -- 4
29 11929 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Montividiu -- 4
30 11930 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- Barreiras -- Sete Belo -- 4
31 11931 -- Brazil -- Parana -- Palotina -- Coodetec -- 4
32 11932 -- Brazil -- Rio Grande do Sul -- Sao Paulo das Missoes -- 4
33 11933 -- Brazil -- Parana -- Cascavel -- 4
34 11934 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- Sao Desiderio -- Horita -- 4
35 11935 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Rio Verde -- Rio Verdinho -- 4
36 11936 -- Brazil -- Rio Grande do Sul -- Rio Grande do SulSanto Angelo -- Mauro Fogerini -- 4
37 11937 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso -- campo Verde -- Pirassununga -- 4
38 11938 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso -- Sorriso -- Pirapo -- 4
39 11939 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso do Sul -- Chapadao do Sul -- Regina -- 4
40 11940 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso do Sul -- Douradina -- Boa Vista -- 4
41 11941 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso -- Campo Verde -- Pirassununga -- 4
42 11942 -- Brazil -- Mato Grosso -- Sapezal -- Massaroli -- 4
43 11943 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Montividiu -- Porteiras -- 4
44 11944 -- Brazil -- Parana -- Palotina -- Coodec -- 4
45 11945 -- Brazil -- Parana -- Rolandia -- Sao Francisco -- 4
46 12235 -- Venezuela -- Estado Aragua -- Municipio Libertador -- La Cuarta -- 4
47 12236 -- Venezuela -- Estado Aragua -- Municipio Libertador -- La Cuarta -- 4
48 12237 -- Venezuela -- Estado Aragua -- Municipio Libertador -- Valle de Tucumeno -- 4
49 12238 -- Venezuela -- Estado Aragua -- Municipio Libertador -- Arenales-Tocoron -- 4
50 12239 -- Venezuela -- Estado Aragua -- Municipio Libertador -- La Cuarta -- 4
51 12240 -- Venezuela -- Estado Aragua -- Municipio Libertador -- Tucumeno -- 4
52 12241 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
53 12242 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
54 12243 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
55 12244 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
56 12245 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
57 12246 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
58 12247 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
59 12248 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
60 12249 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
61 12250 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
62 12251 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
63 12252 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
64 12253 -- USA -- Florida -- Gainesville -- 4
65 12254 -- USA -- Florida -- Citra -- Plant Science Research Center, University of Florida -- 4
66 12255 -- USA -- Florida -- Citra -- Plant Science Research Center, University of Florida -- 4
67 12256 -- USA -- Florida -- Citra -- Plant Science Research Center, University of Florida -- 4
68 12257 -- Brazil -- Sao Paulo -- Guaira -- 4
69 12258 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Montevidiu -- 4
70 12259 -- USA -- Florida -- 4
71 12260 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
72 12261 -- Puerto Rico -- Juana Diaz -- 4
73 12262 -- Puerto Rico -- Santa Isabel -- 4
74 12263 -- Puerto Rico -- Lajas -- 4
75 12264 -- Puerto Rico -- Santa Isabel -- 4
76 12265 -- Brazil -- Minas Gerais -- Matozinhos and Irai de Minas -- 4
77 12266 -- USA -- Florida -- Collier County -- 4
78 12267 -- USA -- North Carolina -- Plymouth -- Vernon G. James Research Center -- 4
79 12268 -- USA -- Georgia -- Tift -- 4
80 12269 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Cabeceiras -- 4
81 12270 -- Brazil -- Goias -- Cabeceiras -- 4
82 12271 -- USA -- Florida -- Collier County -- 4
83 12273 -- USA -- Louisiana -- Rapides -- 4
84 12274 -- USA -- Louisiana -- Rapides -- 4
85 12275 -- USA -- Louisiana -- Franklin -- 4
86 12276 -- USA -- Georgia -- Tift -- 4
87 12277 -- USA -- Florida -- Collier County -- 4
88 12278 -- USA -- Florida -- Hendry -- 4
89 12279 -- USA -- Florida -- Miami-Dade -- 4
90 12280 -- USA -- Florida -- Hendry -- 4
91 12281 -- USA -- Florida -- Collier County -- 4
92 12282 -- USA -- Florida -- Alachua -- 4
93 12283 -- USA -- Florida -- Collier County -- 4
94 12284 -- USA -- Florida -- Collier County -- 4
95 12285 -- USA -- North Carolina -- Hyde -- 4
96 12287 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
97 12288 -- USA -- Florida -- 4
98 12353 -- USA -- Georgia -- Tift -- 4
99 12354 -- Brazil -- Bahia State -- Sao Desidério -- 4
100 12368 -- Argentina -- Cordoba -- Seeber -- 4
101 12462 -- Argentina -- Catamarca -- Los Altos -- 4
102 12463 -- Argentina -- Chaco -- Avai Terai -- 4
103 12498 -- USA -- Louisiana -- 4
104 12552 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
105 12553 -- Mexico -- Sonora -- Huatabampo -- 4
106 12554 -- Mexico -- Coahuila -- Torreon -- 4
107 12555 -- Mexico -- Oaxaca -- San Pablo Huitzo -- 4
108 12556 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
109 12557 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
110 12558 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
111 12559 -- Mexico -- Oaxaca -- San Pablo Huitzo -- 4
112 12560 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
113 12561 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
114 12562 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
115 12564 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
116 12565 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
117 12566 -- Mexico -- Sinaloa -- Los Mochis -- 4
118 12567 -- Puerto Rico -- Ponce -- 4
119 12591 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- Correntina -- 4
120 13001 -- Brazil -- Barreiras -- Bahia -- 4
121 13002 -- Brazil -- Barreiras -- Bahia -- 4
122 13200 -- USA -- Texas -- Snook -- 4
123 13201 -- USA -- Texas -- Snook -- 4
124 13204 -- USA -- 4
125 13205 -- USA -- 4
126 13384 -- Puerto Rico -- 4
127 13385 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- São Desidério -- 4
128 13386 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- São Desidério -- 4
129 13387 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- Bahia -- 4
130 13388 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- Bahia -- 4
131 13445 -- USA -- Lousiana -- 4
132 13446 -- China -- Yunnan -- 4
133 13589 -- China -- Tibet -- Linzhi -- 4
134 13590 -- China -- Hainan -- Haikou -- 4
135 13591 -- China -- Fujian -- Quanzhou -- 4
136 13592 -- China -- Yunnan -- Yuanmou -- 4
137 13593 -- China -- Hainan -- Haikou -- 4
138 13594 -- China -- Fujian -- Quanzhou -- 4
139 13595 -- China -- Yunnan -- Xundian -- 4
140 13596 -- China -- Yunnan -- Yuanmou -- 4
141 13597 -- China -- Tibet -- Linzhi -- 4
142 13598 -- China -- Hainan -- Haikou -- 4
143 13599 -- China -- Fujian -- Quanzhou -- 4
144 13600 -- China -- Yunnan -- Xundian -- 4
145 13601 -- China -- Yunnan -- Yuanmou -- 4
146 13602 -- China -- Tibet -- Linzhi -- 4
147 13603 -- China -- Fujian -- Quanzhou -- 4
148 13604 -- China -- Yunnan -- Xundian -- 4
149 13605 -- China -- Xundian -- Yuanmou -- 4
150 13606 -- China -- Tibet -- Linzhi -- 4
151 13607 -- China -- Fujian -- Quanzhou -- 4
152 13608 -- China -- Yunnan -- Xundian -- 4
153 13609 -- China -- Yunnan -- Yuanmou -- 4
154 13610 -- China -- Tibet -- Linzhi -- 4
155 13611 -- China -- Fujian -- Quanzhou -- 4
156 13612 -- China -- Yunnan -- Xundian -- 4
157 13679 -- Brazil -- Tupanciretã -- Rio Grande do Sul -- 4
158 13680 -- Brazil -- Tupanciretã -- Rio Grande do Sul -- 4
159 13681 -- Brazil -- Tupanciretã -- Rio Grande do Sul -- 4
160 13758 -- Brazil -- Rio Grande do Sul -- 4
161 13760 -- USA -- Texas -- 4
162 13765 -- Brazil -- Lucas do Rio Verde -- 4
163 13766 -- Brazil -- Lucas do Rio Verde -- 4
164 13844 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- 4
165 14034 -- USA -- Florida -- Valrico -- 4
166 14035 -- USA -- Florida -- Indiantown -- 4
167 14036 -- USA -- Florida -- Jupiter -- 4
168 14037 -- USA -- Florida -- Belle Glande -- 4
169 14049 -- China -- Yunnan -- Dehong -- 4
170 14068 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- Correntina CITY -- 4
171 14070 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- Correntina CITY -- 4
172 14112 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
173 14113 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
174 14114 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
175 14115 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
176 14116 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
177 14117 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
178 14296 -- Brazil -- MT -- Lucas do Rio Verde -- 4
179 14297 -- Brazil -- BA -- Correntina -- 4
180 14298 -- Brazil -- MS -- Chapad˜ ao do Sul -- 4
181 14299 -- Brazil -- MT -- Sapezal -- 4
182 14300 -- Brazil -- BA -- Luis Eduardo Magalh˜ aes -- 4
183 14301 -- Brazil -- PR -- Tibagi -- 4
184 14302 -- Brazil -- GO -- Rio Verde -- 4
185 14303 -- Brazil -- MS -- Chapad˜ ao do Sul -- 4
186 14304 -- Brazil -- MT -- Lucas do Rio Verde -- 4
187 14305 -- Brazil -- MT -- Primavera do Leste -- 4
188 14306 -- Brazil -- BA -- Sao ˜ Desid´erio -- 4
189 14307 -- Brazil -- BA -- Jaborandi -- 4
190 14308 -- Brazil -- MT -- Primavera do Leste -- 4
191 14309 -- Brazil -- BA -- Luis Eduardo Magalh˜ aes -- 4
192 14310 -- Brazil -- GO -- Santa Helena de Goias -- 4
193 14311 -- Brazil -- GO -- Cristalina -- 4
194 14312 -- Brazil -- MG -- Araguari -- 4
195 14506 -- China -- Shishou -- 4
196 14508 -- China -- Shishou -- 4
197 14509 -- China -- Shishou -- 4
198 14510 -- China -- Xiantao -- 4
199 14511 -- Brazil -- 4
200 14512 -- Brazil -- 4
201 14513 -- Brazil -- 4
202 14514 -- Brazil -- 4
203 14515 -- China -- Guangdong -- 4
204 14516 -- China -- Zhejiang -- 4
205 14517 -- China -- 4
206 14518 -- China -- 4
207 14519 -- China -- 4
208 14520 -- China -- 4
209 14521 -- China -- 4
210 14522 -- China -- 4
211 14523 -- China -- 4
212 14524 -- China -- 4
213 14525 -- China -- 4
214 14526 -- China -- 4
215 14527 -- China -- 4
216 14528 -- China -- 4
217 14529 -- China -- 4
218 14530 -- China -- SY -- 4
219 14531 -- China -- SY -- 4
220 14532 -- China -- RL -- 4
221 14533 -- China -- JC -- 4
222 14534 -- China -- NC -- 4
223 14630 -- China -- Guangdong -- Zhongluotan -- Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences -- 4
224 14649 -- China -- Zhejiang -- 4
225 14688 -- Brazil -- São Desidério -- 4
226 14844 -- Brazil -- São Desidério / BA-R -- 4
227 14846 -- Brazil -- Tasso Fragoso / TF-R -- 4
228 15068 -- Brazil -- Paraná -- 4
229 15069 -- Brazil -- Bahia -- 4

Other Reference

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